This reference guide covers how to use Spring Cloud Kubernetes.

Why do you need Spring Cloud Kubernetes?

Spring Cloud Kubernetes provide Spring Cloud common interface implementations that consume Kubernetes native services. The main objective of the projects provided in this repository is to facilitate the integration of Spring Cloud and Spring Boot applications running inside Kubernetes.

Starters

Starters are convenient dependency descriptors you can include in your application. Include a starter to get the dependencies and Spring Boot auto-configuration for a feature set.

Starter Features
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes</artifactId>
</dependency>

Discovery Client implementation that resolves service names to Kubernetes Services.

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes-config</artifactId>
</dependency>

Load application properties from Kubernetes ConfigMaps and Secrets. Reload application properties when a ConfigMap or Secret changes.

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes-ribbon</artifactId>
</dependency>

Ribbon client-side load balancer with server list obtained from Kubernetes Endpoints.

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes-all</artifactId>
</dependency>

All Spring Cloud Kubernetes features.

DiscoveryClient for Kubernetes

This project provides an implementation of Discovery Client for Kubernetes. This client lets you query Kubernetes endpoints (see services) by name. A service is typically exposed by the Kubernetes API server as a collection of endpoints that represent http and https addresses and that a client can access from a Spring Boot application running as a pod. This discovery feature is also used by the Spring Cloud Kubernetes Ribbon project to fetch the list of the endpoints defined for an application to be load balanced.

This is something that you get for free by adding the following dependency inside your project:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes</artifactId>
</dependency>

To enable loading of the DiscoveryClient, add @EnableDiscoveryClient to the according configuration or application class, as the following example shows:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class Application {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
  }
}

Then you can inject the client in your code simply by autowiring it, as the following example shows:

@Autowired
private DiscoveryClient discoveryClient;

If, for any reason, you need to disable the DiscoveryClient, you can set the following property in application.properties:

spring.cloud.kubernetes.discovery.enabled=false

Some Spring Cloud components use the DiscoveryClient in order to obtain information about the local service instance. For this to work, you need to align the Kubernetes service name with the spring.application.name property.

Spring Cloud Kubernetes can also watch the Kubernetes service catalog for changes and update the DiscoveryClient implementation accordingly. In order to enable this functionality you need to add @EnableScheduling on a configuration class in your application.

Kubernetes native service discovery

Kubernetes itself is capable of (server side) service discovery (see: https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/#discovering-services). Using native kubernetes service discovery ensures compatibility with additional tooling, such as Istio (https://istio.io), a service mesh that is capable of load balancing, ribbon, circuit breaker, failover, and much more.

The caller service then need only refer to names resolvable in a particular Kubernetes cluster. A simple implementation might use a spring RestTemplate that refers to a fully qualified domain name (FQDN), such as https://{service-name}.{namespace}.svc.{cluster}.local:{service-port}.

Additionally, you can use Hystrix for:

  • Circuit breaker implementation on the caller side, by annotating the spring boot application class with @EnableCircuitBreaker

  • Fallback functionality, by annotating the respective method with @HystrixCommand(fallbackMethod=

Kubernetes PropertySource implementations

The most common approach to configuring your Spring Boot application is to create an application.properties or applicaiton.yaml or an application-profile.properties or application-profile.yaml file that contains key-value pairs that provide customization values to your application or Spring Boot starters. You can override these properties by specifying system properties or environment variables.

Using a ConfigMap PropertySource

Kubernetes provides a resource named ConfigMap to externalize the parameters to pass to your application in the form of key-value pairs or embedded application.properties or application.yaml files. The Spring Cloud Kubernetes Config project makes Kubernetes ConfigMap instances available during application bootstrapping and triggers hot reloading of beans or Spring context when changes are detected on observed ConfigMap instances.

The default behavior is to create a ConfigMapPropertySource based on a Kubernetes ConfigMap that has a metadata.name value of either the name of your Spring application (as defined by its spring.application.name property) or a custom name defined within the bootstrap.properties file under the following key: spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.name.

However, more advanced configuration is possible where you can use multiple ConfigMap instances. The spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.sources list makes this possible. For example, you could define the following ConfigMap instances:

spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-k8s-app
  cloud:
    kubernetes:
      config:
        name: default-name
        namespace: default-namespace
        sources:
         # Spring Cloud Kubernetes looks up a ConfigMap named c1 in namespace default-namespace
         - name: c1
         # Spring Cloud Kubernetes looks up a ConfigMap named default-name in whatever namespace n2
         - namespace: n2
         # Spring Cloud Kubernetes looks up a ConfigMap named c3 in namespace n3
         - namespace: n3
           name: c3

In the preceding example, if spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.namespace had not been set, the ConfigMap named c1 would be looked up in the namespace that the application runs.

Any matching ConfigMap that is found is processed as follows:

  • Apply individual configuration properties.

  • Apply as yaml the content of any property named application.yaml.

  • Apply as a properties file the content of any property named application.properties.

The single exception to the aforementioned flow is when the ConfigMap contains a single key that indicates the file is a YAML or properties file. In that case, the name of the key does NOT have to be application.yaml or application.properties (it can be anything) and the value of the property is treated correctly. This features facilitates the use case where the ConfigMap was created by using something like the following:

kubectl create configmap game-config --from-file=/path/to/app-config.yaml

Assume that we have a Spring Boot application named demo that uses the following properties to read its thread pool configuration.

  • pool.size.core

  • pool.size.maximum

This can be externalized to config map in yaml format as follows:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: demo
data:
  pool.size.core: 1
  pool.size.max: 16

Individual properties work fine for most cases. However, sometimes, embedded yaml is more convenient. In this case, we use a single property named application.yaml to embed our yaml, as follows:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: demo
data:
  application.yaml: |-
    pool:
      size:
        core: 1
        max:16

The following example also works:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: demo
data:
  custom-name.yaml: |-
    pool:
      size:
        core: 1
        max:16

You can also configure Spring Boot applications differently depending on active profiles that are merged together when the ConfigMap is read. You can provide different property values for different profiles by using an application.properties or application.yaml property, specifying profile-specific values, each in their own document (indicated by the --- sequence), as follows:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: demo
data:
  application.yml: |-
    greeting:
      message: Say Hello to the World
    farewell:
      message: Say Goodbye
    ---
    spring:
      profiles: development
    greeting:
      message: Say Hello to the Developers
    farewell:
      message: Say Goodbye to the Developers
    ---
    spring:
      profiles: production
    greeting:
      message: Say Hello to the Ops

In the preceding case, the configuration loaded into your Spring Application with the development profile is as follows:

  greeting:
    message: Say Hello to the Developers
  farewell:
    message: Say Goodbye to the Developers

However, if the production profile is active, the configuration becomes:

  greeting:
    message: Say Hello to the Ops
  farewell:
    message: Say Goodbye

If both profiles are active, the property that appears last within the ConfigMap overwrites any preceding values.

To tell Spring Boot which profile should be enabled at bootstrap, you can pass a system property to the Java command. To do so, you can launch your Spring Boot application with an environment variable that you can define with the OpenShift DeploymentConfig or Kubernetes ReplicationConfig resource file, as follows:

apiVersion: v1
kind: DeploymentConfig
spec:
  replicas: 1
  ...
    spec:
      containers:
      - env:
        - name: JAVA_APP_DIR
          value: /deployments
        - name: JAVA_OPTIONS
          value: -Dspring.profiles.active=developer
You should check the security configuration section. To access config maps from inside a pod you need to have the correct Kubernetes service accounts, roles and role bindings.

Another option for using ConfigMap instances is to mount them into the Pod by running the Spring Cloud Kubernetes application and having Spring Cloud Kubernetes read them from the file system. This behavior is controlled by the spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.paths property. You can use it in addition to or instead of the mechanism described earlier. You can specify multiple (exact) file paths in spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.paths by using the , delimiter.

You have to provide the full exact path to each property file, because directories are not being recursively parsed.
Table 1. Properties:
Name Type Default Description

spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.enabled

Boolean

true

Enable Secrets PropertySource

spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.name

String

${spring.application.name}

Sets the name of ConfigMap to look up

spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.namespace

String

Client namespace

Sets the Kubernetes namespace where to lookup

spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.paths

List

null

Sets the paths where ConfigMap instances are mounted

spring.cloud.kubernetes.config.enableApi

Boolean

true

Enable or disable consuming ConfigMap instances through APIs

Secrets PropertySource

Kubernetes has the notion of Secrets for storing sensitive data such as passwords, OAuth tokens, and so on. This project provides integration with Secrets to make secrets accessible by Spring Boot applications. You can explicitly enable or disable This feature by setting the spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.enabled property.

When enabled, the SecretsPropertySource looks up Kubernetes for Secrets from the following sources:

  1. Reading recursively from secrets mounts

  2. Named after the application (as defined by spring.application.name)

  3. Matching some labels

Note that, by default, consuming Secrets through the API (points 2 and 3 above) is not enabled for security reasons. Further, we recommend that containers share secrets through mounted volumes. If you enable consuming Secrets through the API, we recommend that you limit access to Secrets by using an [authorization policy, such as RBAC](https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/secret/#best-practices).

If the secrets are found, their data is made available to the application.

Assume that we have a spring boot application named demo that uses properties to read its database configuration. We can create a Kubernetes secret by using the following command:

oc create secret generic db-secret --from-literal=username=user --from-literal=password=p455w0rd

The preceding command would create the following secret (which you can see by using oc get secrets db-secret -o yaml):

apiVersion: v1
data:
  password: cDQ1NXcwcmQ=
  username: dXNlcg==
kind: Secret
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2017-07-04T09:15:57Z
  name: db-secret
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "357496"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/secrets/db-secret
  uid: 63c89263-6099-11e7-b3da-76d6186905a8
type: Opaque

Note that the data contains Base64-encoded versions of the literal provided by the create command.

Your application can then use this secret — for example, by exporting the secret’s value as environment variables:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ${project.artifactId}
spec:
   template:
     spec:
       containers:
         - env:
            - name: DB_USERNAME
              valueFrom:
                 secretKeyRef:
                   name: db-secret
                   key: username
            - name: DB_PASSWORD
              valueFrom:
                 secretKeyRef:
                   name: db-secret
                   key: password

You can select the Secrets to consume in a number of ways:

  1. By listing the directories where secrets are mapped:

    -Dspring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.paths=/etc/secrets/db-secret,etc/secrets/postgresql

    If you have all the secrets mapped to a common root, you can set them like:

    -Dspring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.paths=/etc/secrets
  2. By setting a named secret:

    -Dspring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.name=db-secret
  3. By defining a list of labels:

    -Dspring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.labels.broker=activemq
    -Dspring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.labels.db=postgresql
Table 2. Properties:
Name Type Default Description

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.enabled

Boolean

true

Enable Secrets PropertySource

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.name

String

${spring.application.name}

Sets the name of the secret to look up

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.namespace

String

Client namespace

Sets the Kubernetes namespace where to look up

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.labels

Map

null

Sets the labels used to lookup secrets

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.paths

List

null

Sets the paths where secrets are mounted (example 1)

spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.enableApi

Boolean

false

Enables or disables consuming secrets through APIs (examples 2 and 3)

Notes: * The spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.labels property behaves as defined by Map-based binding. * The spring.cloud.kubernetes.secrets.paths property behaves as defined by Collection-based binding. * Access to secrets through the API may be restricted for security reasons. The preferred way is to mount secrets to the Pod.

You can find an example of an application that uses secrets (though it has not been updated to use the new spring-cloud-kubernetes project) at spring-boot-camel-config

PropertySource Reload

Some applications may need to detect changes on external property sources and update their internal status to reflect the new configuration. The reload feature of Spring Cloud Kubernetes is able to trigger an application reload when a related ConfigMap or Secret changes.

By default, this feature is disabled. You can enable it by using the spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.enabled=true configuration property (for example, in the application.properties file).

The following levels of reload are supported (by setting the spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.strategy property): * refresh (default): Only configuration beans annotated with @ConfigurationProperties or @RefreshScope are reloaded. This reload level leverages the refresh feature of Spring Cloud Context. * restart_context: the whole Spring ApplicationContext is gracefully restarted. Beans are recreated with the new configuration. * shutdown: the Spring ApplicationContext is shut down to activate a restart of the container. When you use this level, make sure that the lifecycle of all non-daemon threads is bound to the ApplicationContext and that a replication controller or replica set is configured to restart the pod.

Assuming that the reload feature is enabled with default settings (refresh mode), the following bean is refreshed when the config map changes:

@Configuration
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "bean")
public class MyConfig {

    private String message = "a message that can be changed live";

    // getter and setters

}

To see that changes effectively happen, you can create another bean that prints the message periodically, as follows

@Component
public class MyBean {

    @Autowired
    private MyConfig config;

    @Scheduled(fixedDelay = 5000)
    public void hello() {
        System.out.println("The message is: " + config.getMessage());
    }
}

You can change the message printed by the application by using a ConfigMap, as follows:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: reload-example
data:
  application.properties: |-
    bean.message=Hello World!

Any change to the property named bean.message in the ConfigMap associated with the pod is reflected in the output. More generally speaking, changes associated to properties prefixed with the value defined by the prefix field of the @ConfigurationProperties annotation are detected and reflected in the application. Associating a ConfigMap with a pod is explained earlier in this chapter.

The full example is available in spring-cloud-kubernetes-reload-example.

The reload feature supports two operating modes: * Event (default): Watches for changes in config maps or secrets by using the Kubernetes API (web socket). Any event produces a re-check on the configuration and, in case of changes, a reload. The view role on the service account is required in order to listen for config map changes. A higher level role (such as edit) is required for secrets (by default, secrets are not monitored). * Polling: Periodically re-creates the configuration from config maps and secrets to see if it has changed. You can configure the polling period by using the spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.period property and defaults to 15 seconds. It requires the same role as the monitored property source. This means, for example, that using polling on file-mounted secret sources does not require particular privileges.

Table 3. Properties:
Name Type Default Description

spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.enabled

Boolean

false

Enables monitoring of property sources and configuration reload

spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.monitoring-config-maps

Boolean

true

Allow monitoring changes in config maps

spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.monitoring-secrets

Boolean

false

Allow monitoring changes in secrets

`spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.strategy `

Enum

refresh

The strategy to use when firing a reload (refresh, restart_context, or shutdown)

spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.mode

Enum

event

Specifies how to listen for changes in property sources (event or polling)

spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload.period

Duration

15s

The period for verifying changes when using the polling strategy

Notes: * You should not use properties under spring.cloud.kubernetes.reload in config maps or secrets. Changing such properties at runtime may lead to unexpected results. * Deleting a property or the whole config map does not restore the original state of the beans when you use the refresh level.

Ribbon Discovery in Kubernetes

Spring Cloud client applications that call a microservice should be interested on relying on a client load-balancing feature in order to automatically discover at which endpoint(s) it can reach a given service. This mechanism has been implemented within the spring-cloud-kubernetes-ribbon project, where a Kubernetes client populates a Ribbon ServerList that contains information about such endpoints.

The implementation is part of the following starter that you can use by adding its dependency to your pom file:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-kubernetes-ribbon</artifactId>
    <version>${latest.version}</version>
</dependency>

When the list of the endpoints is populated, the Kubernetes client searches the registered endpoints that live in the current namespace or project by matching the service name defined in the Ribbon Client annotation, as follows:

@RibbonClient(name = "name-service")

You can configure Ribbon’s behavior by providing properties in your application.properties (through your application’s dedicated ConfigMap) by using the following format: <name of your service>.ribbon.<Ribbon configuration key>, where:

  • <name of your service> corresponds to the service name you access over Ribbon, as configured by using the @RibbonClient annotation (such as name-service in the preceding example).

  • <Ribbon configuration key> is one of the Ribbon configuration keys defined by Ribbon’s CommonClientConfigKey class.

Additionally, the spring-cloud-kubernetes-ribbon project defines two additional configuration keys to further control how Ribbon interacts with Kubernetes. In particular, if an endpoint defines multiple ports, the default behavior is to use the first one found. To select more specifically which port to use in a multi-port service, you can use the PortName key. If you want to specify in which Kubernetes namespace the target service should be looked up, you can use the KubernetesNamespace key, remembering in both instances to prefix these keys with your service name and ribbon prefix, as specified earlier.

The following examples use this module for ribbon discovery:

You can disable the Ribbon discovery client by setting the spring.cloud.kubernetes.ribbon.enabled=false key within the application properties file.

Kubernetes Ecosystem Awareness

All of the features described earlier in this guide work equally well, regardless of whether your application is running inside Kubernetes. This is really helpful for development and troubleshooting. From a development point of view, this lets you start your Spring Boot application and debug one of the modules that is part of this project. You need not deploy it in Kubernetes, as the code of the project relies on the Fabric8 Kubernetes Java client, which is a fluent DSL that can communicate by using http protocol to the REST API of the Kubernetes Server.

Kubernetes Profile Autoconfiguration

When the application runs as a pod inside Kubernetes, a Spring profile named kubernetes automatically gets activated. This lets you customize the configuration, to define beans that are applied when the Spring Boot application is deployed within the Kubernetes platform (for example, different development and production configuration).

Istio Awareness

When you include the spring-cloud-kubernetes-istio module in the application classpath, a new profile is added to the application, provided the application is running inside a Kubernetes Cluster with Istio installed. You can then use spring @Profile("istio") annotations in your Beans and @Configuration classes.

The Istio awareness module uses me.snowdrop:istio-client to interact with Istio APIs, letting us discover traffic rules, circuit breakers, and so on, making it easy for our Spring Boot applications to consume this data to dynamically configure themselves according to the environment.

Pod Health Indicator

Spring Boot uses HealthIndicator to expose info about the health of an application. That makes it really useful for exposing health-related information to the user and makes it a good fit for use as readiness probes.

The Kubernetes health indicator (which is part of the core module) exposes the following info:

  • Pod name, IP address, namespace, service account, node name, and its IP address

  • A flag that indicates whether the Spring Boot application is internal or external to Kubernetes

Leader Election

<TBD>

Security Configurations Inside Kubernetes

Namespace

Most of the components provided in this project need to know the namespace. For Kubernetes (1.3+), the namespace is made available to the pod as part of the service account secret and is automatically detected by the client. For earlier versions, it needs to be specified as an environment variable to the pod. A quick way to do this is as follows:

      env:
      - name: "KUBERNETES_NAMESPACE"
        valueFrom:
          fieldRef:
            fieldPath: "metadata.namespace"

Service Account

For distributions of Kubernetes that support more fine-grained role-based access within the cluster, you need to make sure a pod that runs with spring-cloud-kubernetes has access to the Kubernetes API. For any service accounts you assign to a deployment or pod, you need to make sure they have the correct roles. For example, you can add cluster-reader permissions to your default service account, depending on the project you’re in.

Service Registry Implementation

In Kubernetes service registration is controlled by the platform, the application itself does not control registration as it may do in other platforms. For this reason using spring.cloud.service-registry.auto-registration.enabled or setting @EnableDiscoveryClient(autoRegister=false) will have no effect in Spring Cloud Kubernetes.

Examples

Spring Cloud Kubernetes tries to make it transparent for your applications to consume Kubernetes Native Services by following the Spring Cloud interfaces.

In your applications, you need to add the spring-cloud-kubernetes-discovery dependency to your classpath and remove any other dependency that contains a DiscoveryClient implementation (that is, a Eureka discovery client). The same applies for PropertySourceLocator, where you need to add to the classpath the spring-cloud-kubernetes-config and remove any other dependency that contains a PropertySourceLocator implementation (that is, a configuration server client).

The following projects highlight the usage of these dependencies and demonstrate how you can use these libraries from any Spring Boot application:

Other Resources

This section lists other resources, such as presentations (slides) and videos about Spring Cloud Kubernetes.

Please feel free to submit other resources through pull requests to this repository.

Building

Basic Compile and Test

To build the source you will need to install JDK 1.7.

Spring Cloud uses Maven for most build-related activities, and you should be able to get off the ground quite quickly by cloning the project you are interested in and typing

$ ./mvnw install
You can also install Maven (>=3.3.3) yourself and run the mvn command in place of ./mvnw in the examples below. If you do that you also might need to add -P spring if your local Maven settings do not contain repository declarations for spring pre-release artifacts.
Be aware that you might need to increase the amount of memory available to Maven by setting a MAVEN_OPTS environment variable with a value like -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m. We try to cover this in the .mvn configuration, so if you find you have to do it to make a build succeed, please raise a ticket to get the settings added to source control.

For hints on how to build the project look in .travis.yml if there is one. There should be a "script" and maybe "install" command. Also look at the "services" section to see if any services need to be running locally (e.g. mongo or rabbit). Ignore the git-related bits that you might find in "before_install" since they’re related to setting git credentials and you already have those.

The projects that require middleware generally include a docker-compose.yml, so consider using Docker Compose to run the middeware servers in Docker containers. See the README in the scripts demo repository for specific instructions about the common cases of mongo, rabbit and redis.

If all else fails, build with the command from .travis.yml (usually ./mvnw install).

Documentation

The spring-cloud-build module has a "docs" profile, and if you switch that on it will try to build asciidoc sources from src/main/asciidoc. As part of that process it will look for a README.adoc and process it by loading all the includes, but not parsing or rendering it, just copying it to ${main.basedir} (defaults to ${basedir}, i.e. the root of the project). If there are any changes in the README it will then show up after a Maven build as a modified file in the correct place. Just commit it and push the change.

Working with the code

If you don’t have an IDE preference we would recommend that you use Spring Tools Suite or Eclipse when working with the code. We use the m2eclipse eclipse plugin for maven support. Other IDEs and tools should also work without issue as long as they use Maven 3.3.3 or better.

Importing into eclipse with m2eclipse

We recommend the m2eclipse eclipse plugin when working with eclipse. If you don’t already have m2eclipse installed it is available from the "eclipse marketplace".

Older versions of m2e do not support Maven 3.3, so once the projects are imported into Eclipse you will also need to tell m2eclipse to use the right profile for the projects. If you see many different errors related to the POMs in the projects, check that you have an up to date installation. If you can’t upgrade m2e, add the "spring" profile to your settings.xml. Alternatively you can copy the repository settings from the "spring" profile of the parent pom into your settings.xml.

Importing into eclipse without m2eclipse

If you prefer not to use m2eclipse you can generate eclipse project metadata using the following command:

$ ./mvnw eclipse:eclipse

The generated eclipse projects can be imported by selecting import existing projects from the file menu.

Contributing

Spring Cloud is released under the non-restrictive Apache 2.0 license, and follows a very standard Github development process, using Github tracker for issues and merging pull requests into master. If you want to contribute even something trivial please do not hesitate, but follow the guidelines below.

Sign the Contributor License Agreement

Before we accept a non-trivial patch or pull request we will need you to sign the Contributor License Agreement. Signing the contributor’s agreement does not grant anyone commit rights to the main repository, but it does mean that we can accept your contributions, and you will get an author credit if we do. Active contributors might be asked to join the core team, and given the ability to merge pull requests.

Code of Conduct

This project adheres to the Contributor Covenant code of conduct. By participating, you are expected to uphold this code. Please report unacceptable behavior to [email protected].

Code Conventions and Housekeeping

None of these is essential for a pull request, but they will all help. They can also be added after the original pull request but before a merge.

  • Use the Spring Framework code format conventions. If you use Eclipse you can import formatter settings using the eclipse-code-formatter.xml file from the Spring Cloud Build project. If using IntelliJ, you can use the Eclipse Code Formatter Plugin to import the same file.

  • Make sure all new .java files to have a simple Javadoc class comment with at least an @author tag identifying you, and preferably at least a paragraph on what the class is for.

  • Add the ASF license header comment to all new .java files (copy from existing files in the project)

  • Add yourself as an @author to the .java files that you modify substantially (more than cosmetic changes).

  • Add some Javadocs and, if you change the namespace, some XSD doc elements.

  • A few unit tests would help a lot as well — someone has to do it.

  • If no-one else is using your branch, please rebase it against the current master (or other target branch in the main project).

  • When writing a commit message please follow these conventions, if you are fixing an existing issue please add Fixes gh-XXXX at the end of the commit message (where XXXX is the issue number).

Checkstyle

Spring Cloud Build comes with a set of checkstyle rules. You can find them in the spring-cloud-build-tools module. The most notable files under the module are:

spring-cloud-build-tools/
└── src
    ├── checkstyle
    │   └── checkstyle-suppressions.xml (3)
    └── main
        └── resources
            ├── checkstyle-header.txt (2)
            └── checkstyle.xml (1)
1 Default Checkstyle rules
2 File header setup
3 Default suppression rules

Checkstyle configuration

Checkstyle rules are disabled by default. To add checkstyle to your project just define the following properties and plugins.

pom.xml
<properties>
<maven-checkstyle-plugin.failsOnError>true</maven-checkstyle-plugin.failsOnError> (1)
        <maven-checkstyle-plugin.failsOnViolation>true
        </maven-checkstyle-plugin.failsOnViolation> (2)
        <maven-checkstyle-plugin.includeTestSourceDirectory>true
        </maven-checkstyle-plugin.includeTestSourceDirectory> (3)
</properties>

<build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin> (4)
                <groupId>io.spring.javaformat</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-javaformat-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
            <plugin> (5)
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-checkstyle-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>

    <reporting>
        <plugins>
            <plugin> (5)
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-checkstyle-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </reporting>
</build>
1 Fails the build upon Checkstyle errors
2 Fails the build upon Checkstyle violations
3 Checkstyle analyzes also the test sources
4 Add the Spring Java Format plugin that will reformat your code to pass most of the Checkstyle formatting rules
5 Add checkstyle plugin to your build and reporting phases

If you need to suppress some rules (e.g. line length needs to be longer), then it’s enough for you to define a file under ${project.root}/src/checkstyle/checkstyle-suppressions.xml with your suppressions. Example:

projectRoot/src/checkstyle/checkstyle-suppresions.xml
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE suppressions PUBLIC
		"-//Puppy Crawl//DTD Suppressions 1.1//EN"
		"https://www.puppycrawl.com/dtds/suppressions_1_1.dtd">
<suppressions>
	<suppress files=".*ConfigServerApplication\.java" checks="HideUtilityClassConstructor"/>
	<suppress files=".*ConfigClientWatch\.java" checks="LineLengthCheck"/>
</suppressions>

It’s advisable to copy the ${spring-cloud-build.rootFolder}/.editorconfig and ${spring-cloud-build.rootFolder}/.springformat to your project. That way, some default formatting rules will be applied. You can do so by running this script:

$ curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/spring-cloud/spring-cloud-build/master/.editorconfig -o .editorconfig
$ touch .springformat

IDE setup

Intellij IDEA

In order to setup Intellij you should import our coding conventions, inspection profiles and set up the checkstyle plugin.

spring-cloud-build-tools/
└── src
    ├── checkstyle
    │   └── checkstyle-suppressions.xml (3)
    └── main
        └── resources
            ├── checkstyle-header.txt (2)
            ├── checkstyle.xml (1)
            └── intellij
                ├── Intellij_Project_Defaults.xml (4)
                └── Intellij_Spring_Boot_Java_Conventions.xml (5)
1 Default Checkstyle rules
2 File header setup
3 Default suppression rules
4 Project defaults for Intellij that apply most of Checkstyle rules
5 Project style conventions for Intellij that apply most of Checkstyle rules
Code style
Figure 1. Code style

Go to FileSettingsEditorCode style. There click on the icon next to the Scheme section. There, click on the Import Scheme value and pick the Intellij IDEA code style XML option. Import the spring-cloud-build-tools/src/main/resources/intellij/Intellij_Spring_Boot_Java_Conventions.xml file.

Code style
Figure 2. Inspection profiles

Go to FileSettingsEditorInspections. There click on the icon next to the Profile section. There, click on the Import Profile and import the spring-cloud-build-tools/src/main/resources/intellij/Intellij_Project_Defaults.xml file.

Checkstyle

To have Intellij work with Checkstyle, you have to install the Checkstyle plugin. It’s advisable to also install the Assertions2Assertj to automatically convert the JUnit assertions

Checkstyle

Go to FileSettingsOther settingsCheckstyle. There click on the + icon in the Configuration file section. There, you’ll have to define where the checkstyle rules should be picked from. In the image above, we’ve picked the rules from the cloned Spring Cloud Build repository. However, you can point to the Spring Cloud Build’s GitHub repository (e.g. for the checkstyle.xml : https://raw.githubusercontent.com/spring-cloud/spring-cloud-build/master/spring-cloud-build-tools/src/main/resources/checkstyle.xml). We need to provide the following variables:

Remember to set the Scan Scope to All sources since we apply checkstyle rules for production and test sources.