3. Spring Cloud Commons: Common Abstractions

Patterns such as service discovery, load balancing and circuit breakers lend themselves to a common abstraction layer that can be consumed by all Spring Cloud clients, independent of the implementation (e.g. discovery via Eureka or Consul).

3.1 @EnableDiscoveryClient

Commons provides the @EnableDiscoveryClient annotation. This looks for implementations of the DiscoveryClient interface via META-INF/spring.factories. Implementations of Discovery Client will add a configuration class to spring.factories under the org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient key. Examples of DiscoveryClient implementations: are Spring Cloud Netflix Eureka, Spring Cloud Consul Discovery and Spring Cloud Zookeeper Discovery.

By default, implementations of DiscoveryClient will auto-register the local Spring Boot server with the remote discovery server. This can be disabled by setting autoRegister=false in @EnableDiscoveryClient.

[Note]Note

The use of @EnableDiscoveryClient is no longer required. It is enough to just have a DiscoveryClient implementation on the classpath to cause the Spring Boot application to register with the service discovery server.

3.1.1 Health Indicator

Commons creates a Spring Boot HealthIndicator that DiscoveryClient implementations can participate in by implementing DiscoveryHealthIndicator. To disable the composite HealthIndicator set spring.cloud.discovery.client.composite-indicator.enabled=false. A generic HealthIndicator based on DiscoveryClient is auto-configured (DiscoveryClientHealthIndicator). To disable it, set `spring.cloud.discovery.client.health-indicator.enabled=false. To disable the description field of the DiscoveryClientHealthIndicator set spring.cloud.discovery.client.health-indicator.include-description=false, otherwise it can bubble up as the description of the rolled up HealthIndicator.

3.2 ServiceRegistry

Commons now provides a ServiceRegistry interface which provides methods like register(Registration) and deregister(Registration) which allow you to provide custom registered services. Registration is a marker interface.

@Configuration
@EnableDiscoveryClient(autoRegister=false)
public class MyConfiguration {
    private ServiceRegistry registry;

    public MyConfiguration(ServiceRegistry registry) {
        this.registry = registry;
    }

    // called via some external process, such as an event or a custom actuator endpoint
    public void register() {
        Registration registration = constructRegistration();
        this.registry.register(registration);
    }
}

Each ServiceRegistry implementation has its own Registry implementation.

3.2.1 ServiceRegistry Auto-Registration

By default, the ServiceRegistry implementation will auto-register the running service. To disable that behavior, there are two methods. You can set @EnableDiscoveryClient(autoRegister=false) to permanently disable auto-registration. You can also set spring.cloud.service-registry.auto-registration.enabled=false to disable the behavior via configuration.

3.2.2 Service Registry Actuator Endpoint

A /service-registry actuator endpoint is provided by Commons. This endpoint relys on a Registration bean in the Spring Application Context. Calling /service-registry/instance-status via a GET will return the status of the Registration. A POST to the same endpoint with a String body will change the status of the current Registration to the new value. Please see the documentation of the ServiceRegistry implementation you are using for the allowed values for updating the status and the values retured for the status.

3.3 Spring RestTemplate as a Load Balancer Client

RestTemplate can be automatically configured to use ribbon. To create a load balanced RestTemplate create a RestTemplate @Bean and use the @LoadBalanced qualifier.

[Warning]Warning

A RestTemplate bean is no longer created via auto configuration. It must be created by individual applications.

@Configuration
public class MyConfiguration {

    @LoadBalanced
    @Bean
    RestTemplate restTemplate() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}

public class MyClass {
    @Autowired
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    public String doOtherStuff() {
        String results = restTemplate.getForObject("http://stores/stores", String.class);
        return results;
    }
}

The URI needs to use a virtual host name (ie. service name, not a host name). The Ribbon client is used to create a full physical address. See RibbonAutoConfiguration for details of how the RestTemplate is set up.

3.3.1 Retrying Failed Requests

A load balanced RestTemplate can be configured to retry failed requests. By default this logic is disabled, you can enable it by adding Spring Retry to your application’s classpath. The load balanced RestTemplate will honor some of the Ribbon configuration values related to retrying failed requests. If you would like to disable the retry logic with Spring Retry on the classpath you can set spring.cloud.loadbalancer.retry.enabled=false. The properties you can use are client.ribbon.MaxAutoRetries, client.ribbon.MaxAutoRetriesNextServer, and client.ribbon.OkToRetryOnAllOperations. See the Ribbon documentation for a description of what there properties do.

If you would like to implement a BackOffPolicy in your retries you will need to create a bean of type LoadBalancedBackOffPolicyFactory, and return the BackOffPolicy you would like to use for a given service.

@Configuration
public class MyConfiguration {
    @Bean
    LoadBalancedBackOffPolicyFactory backOffPolciyFactory() {
        return new LoadBalancedBackOffPolicyFactory() {
            @Override
            public BackOffPolicy createBackOffPolicy(String service) {
        		return new ExponentialBackOffPolicy();
        	}
        };
    }
}
[Note]Note

client in the above examples should be replaced with your Ribbon client’s name.

3.4 Multiple RestTemplate objects

If you want a RestTemplate that is not load balanced, create a RestTemplate bean and inject it as normal. To access the load balanced RestTemplate use the @LoadBalanced qualifier when you create your @Bean.

[Important]Important

Notice the @Primary annotation on the plain RestTemplate declaration in the example below, to disambiguate the unqualified @Autowired injection.

@Configuration
public class MyConfiguration {

    @LoadBalanced
    @Bean
    RestTemplate loadBalanced() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }

    @Primary
    @Bean
    RestTemplate restTemplate() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}

public class MyClass {
    @Autowired
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @Autowired
    @LoadBalanced
    private RestTemplate loadBalanced;

    public String doOtherStuff() {
        return loadBalanced.getForObject("http://stores/stores", String.class);
    }

    public String doStuff() {
        return restTemplate.getForObject("http://example.com", String.class);
    }
}
[Tip]Tip

If you see errors like java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Can not set org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate field com.my.app.Foo.restTemplate to com.sun.proxy.$Proxy89 try injecting RestOperations instead or setting spring.aop.proxyTargetClass=true.

3.5 Ignore Network Interfaces

Sometimes it is useful to ignore certain named network interfaces so they can be excluded from Service Discovery registration (eg. running in a Docker container). A list of regular expressions can be set that will cause the desired network interfaces to be ignored. The following configuration will ignore the "docker0" interface and all interfaces that start with "veth".

application.yml. 

spring:
  cloud:
    inetutils:
      ignoredInterfaces:
        - docker0
        - veth.*

You can also force to use only specified network addresses using list of regular expressions:

application.yml. 

spring:
  cloud:
    inetutils:
      preferredNetworks:
        - 192.168
        - 10.0

You can also force to use only site local addresses. See Inet4Address.html.isSiteLocalAddress() for more details what is site local address.

application.yml. 

spring:
  cloud:
    inetutils:
      useOnlySiteLocalInterfaces: true

3.6 HTTP Client Factories

Spring Cloud Commons provides beans for creating both Apache HTTP clients (ApacheHttpClientFactory) as well as OK HTTP clients (OkHttpClientFactory). The OkHttpClientFactory bean will only be created if the OK HTTP jar is on the classpath. In addition, Spring Cloud Commons provides beans for creating the connection managers used by both clients, ApacheHttpClientConnectionManagerFactory for the Apache HTTP client and OkHttpClientConnectionPoolFactory for the OK HTTP client. You can provide your own implementation of these beans if you would like to customize how the HTTP clients are created in downstream projects. You can also disable the creation of these beans by setting spring.cloud.httpclientfactories.apache.enabled or spring.cloud.httpclientfactories.ok.enabled to false.