8. Router and Filter: Zuul

Routing is an integral part of a microservice architecture. For example, / may be mapped to your web application, /api/users is mapped to the user service and /api/shop is mapped to the shop service. Zuul is a JVM-based router and server-side load balancer from Netflix.

Netflix uses Zuul for the following:

Zuul’s rule engine lets rules and filters be written in essentially any JVM language, with built-in support for Java and Groovy.

[Note]Note

The configuration property zuul.max.host.connections has been replaced by two new properties, zuul.host.maxTotalConnections and zuul.host.maxPerRouteConnections, which default to 200 and 20 respectively.

[Note]Note

The default Hystrix isolation pattern (ExecutionIsolationStrategy) for all routes is SEMAPHORE. zuul.ribbonIsolationStrategy can be changed to THREAD if that isolation pattern is preferred.

8.1 How to Include Zuul

To include Zuul in your project, use the starter with a group ID of org.springframework.cloud and a artifact ID of spring-cloud-starter-netflix-zuul. See the Spring Cloud Project page for details on setting up your build system with the current Spring Cloud Release Train.

8.2 Embedded Zuul Reverse Proxy

Spring Cloud has created an embedded Zuul proxy to ease the development of a common use case where a UI application wants to make proxy calls to one or more back end services. This feature is useful for a user interface to proxy to the backend services it requires, avoiding the need to manage CORS and authentication concerns independently for all the backends.

To enable it, annotate a Spring Boot main class with @EnableZuulProxy. Doing so causes local calls to be forwarded to the appropriate service. By convention, a service with an ID of users receives requests from the proxy located at /users (with the prefix stripped). The proxy uses Ribbon to locate an instance to which to forward through discovery. All requests are executed in a hystrix command, so failures appear in Hystrix metrics. Once the circuit is open, the proxy does not try to contact the service.

[Note]Note

the Zuul starter does not include a discovery client, so, for routes based on service IDs, you need to provide one of those on the classpath as well (Eureka is one choice).

To skip having a service automatically added, set zuul.ignored-services to a list of service ID patterns. If a service matches a pattern that is ignored but is also included in the explicitly configured routes map, it is unignored, as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  ignoredServices: '*'
  routes:
    users: /myusers/**

In the preceding example, all services are ignored, except for users.

To augment or change the proxy routes, you can add external configuration, as follows:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users: /myusers/**

The preceding example means that HTTP calls to /myusers get forwarded to the users service (for example /myusers/101 is forwarded to /101).

To get more fine-grained control over a route, you can specify the path and the serviceId independently, as follows:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      serviceId: users_service

The preceding example means that HTTP calls to /myusers get forwarded to the users_service service. The route must have a path that can be specified as an ant-style pattern, so /myusers/* only matches one level, but /myusers/** matches hierarchically.

The location of the backend can be specified as either a serviceId (for a service from discovery) or a url (for a physical location), as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      url: http://example.com/users_service

These simple url-routes do not get executed as a HystrixCommand, nor do they load-balance multiple URLs with Ribbon. To achieve those goals, you can specify a serviceId with a static list of servers, as follows:

application.yml. 

zuul:
  routes:
    echo:
      path: /myusers/**
      serviceId: myusers-service
      stripPrefix: true

hystrix:
  command:
    myusers-service:
      execution:
        isolation:
          thread:
            timeoutInMilliseconds: ...

myusers-service:
  ribbon:
    NIWSServerListClassName: com.netflix.loadbalancer.ConfigurationBasedServerList
    ListOfServers: http://example1.com,http://example2.com
    ConnectTimeout: 1000
    ReadTimeout: 3000
    MaxTotalHttpConnections: 500
    MaxConnectionsPerHost: 100

Another method is specifiying a service-route and configuring a Ribbon client for the serviceId (doing so requires disabling Eureka support in Ribbon — see above for more information), as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      serviceId: users

ribbon:
  eureka:
    enabled: false

users:
  ribbon:
    listOfServers: example.com,google.com

You can provide a convention between serviceId and routes by using regexmapper. It uses regular-expression named groups to extract variables from serviceId and inject them into a route pattern, as shown in the following example:

ApplicationConfiguration.java. 

@Bean
public PatternServiceRouteMapper serviceRouteMapper() {
    return new PatternServiceRouteMapper(
        "(?<name>^.+)-(?<version>v.+$)",
        "${version}/${name}");
}

The preceding example means that a serviceId of myusers-v1 is mapped to route /v1/myusers/**. Any regular expression is accepted, but all named groups must be present in both servicePattern and routePattern. If servicePattern does not match a serviceId, the default behavior is used. In the preceding example, a serviceId of myusers is mapped to the "/myusers/**" route (with no version detected). This feature is disabled by default and only applies to discovered services.

To add a prefix to all mappings, set zuul.prefix to a value, such as /api. By default, the proxy prefix is stripped from the request before the request is forwarded by (you can switch this behavior off with zuul.stripPrefix=false). You can also switch off the stripping of the service-specific prefix from individual routes, as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      stripPrefix: false

[Note]Note

zuul.stripPrefix only applies to the prefix set in zuul.prefix. It does not have any effect on prefixes defined within a given route’s path.

In the preceding example, requests to /myusers/101 are forwarded to /myusers/101 on the users service.

The zuul.routes entries actually bind to an object of type ZuulProperties. If you look at the properties of that object, you can see that it also has a retryable flag. Set that flag to true to have the Ribbon client automatically retry failed requests. You can also set that flag to true when you need to modify the parameters of the retry operations that use the Ribbon client configuration.

By default, the X-Forwarded-Host header is added to the forwarded requests. To turn it off, set zuul.addProxyHeaders = false. By default, the prefix path is stripped, and the request to the backend picks up a X-Forwarded-Prefix header (/myusers in the examples shown earlier).

If you set a default route (/), an application with @EnableZuulProxy could act as a standalone server. For example, zuul.route.home: / would route all traffic ("/**") to the "home" service.

If more fine-grained ignoring is needed, you can specify specific patterns to ignore. These patterns are evaluated at the start of the route location process, which means prefixes should be included in the pattern to warrant a match. Ignored patterns span all services and supersede any other route specification. The following example shows how to create ignored patterns:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  ignoredPatterns: /**/admin/**
  routes:
    users: /myusers/**

The preceding example means that all calls (such as /myusers/101) are forwarded to /101 on the users service. However, calls including /admin/ do not resolve.

[Warning]Warning

If you need your routes to have their order preserved, you need to use a YAML file, as the ordering is lost when using a properties file. The following example shows such a YAML file:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
    legacy:
      path: /**

If you were to use a properties file, the legacy path might end up in front of the users path, rendering the users path unreachable.

8.3 Zuul Http Client

The default HTTP client used by Zuul is now backed by the Apache HTTP Client instead of the deprecated Ribbon RestClient. To use RestClient or okhttp3.OkHttpClient, set ribbon.restclient.enabled=true or ribbon.okhttp.enabled=true, respectively. If you would like to customize the Apache HTTP client or the OK HTTP client, provide a bean of type ClosableHttpClient or OkHttpClient.

8.4 Cookies and Sensitive Headers

You can share headers between services in the same system, but you probably do not want sensitive headers leaking downstream into external servers. You can specify a list of ignored headers as part of the route configuration. Cookies play a special role, because they have well defined semantics in browsers, and they are always to be treated as sensitive. If the consumer of your proxy is a browser, then cookies for downstream services also cause problems for the user, because they all get jumbled up together (all downstream services look like they come from the same place).

If you are careful with the design of your services, (for example, if only one of the downstream services sets cookies), you might be able to let them flow from the backend all the way up to the caller. Also, if your proxy sets cookies and all your back-end services are part of the same system, it can be natural to simply share them (and, for instance, use Spring Session to link them up to some shared state). Other than that, any cookies that get set by downstream services are likely to be not useful to the caller, so it is recommended that you make (at least) Set-Cookie and Cookie into sensitive headers for routes that are not part of your domain. Even for routes that are part of your domain, try to think carefully about what it means before letting cookies flow between them and the proxy.

The sensitive headers can be configured as a comma-separated list per route, as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      sensitiveHeaders: Cookie,Set-Cookie,Authorization
      url: https://downstream

[Note]Note

This is the default value for sensitiveHeaders, so you need not set it unless you want it to be different. This is new in Spring Cloud Netflix 1.1 (in 1.0, the user had no control over headers, and all cookies flowed in both directions).

The sensitiveHeaders are a blacklist, and the default is not empty. Consequently, to make Zuul send all headers (except the ignored ones), you must explicitly set it to the empty list. Doing so is necessary if you want to pass cookie or authorization headers to your back end. The following example shows how to use sensitiveHeaders:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      sensitiveHeaders:
      url: https://downstream

You can also set sensitive headers, by setting zuul.sensitiveHeaders. If sensitiveHeaders is set on a route, it overrides the global sensitiveHeaders setting.

8.5 Ignored Headers

In addition to the route-sensitive headers, you can set a global value called zuul.ignoredHeaders for values (both request and response) that should be discarded during interactions with downstream services. By default, if Spring Security is not on the classpath, these are empty. Otherwise, they are initialized to a set of well known “security” headers (for example, involving caching) as specified by Spring Security. The assumption in this case is that the downstream services might add these headers, too, but we want the values from the proxy. To not discard these well known security headers when Spring Security is on the classpath, you can set zuul.ignoreSecurityHeaders to false. Doing so can be useful if you disabled the HTTP Security response headers in Spring Security and want the values provided by downstream services.

8.6 Management Endpoints

By default, if you use @EnableZuulProxy with the Spring Boot Actuator, you enable two additional endpoints:

  • Routes
  • Filters

8.6.1 Routes Endpoint

A GET to the routes endpoint at /routes returns a list of the mapped routes:

GET /routes. 

{
  /stores/**: "http://localhost:8081"
}

Additional route details can be requested by adding the ?format=details query string to /routes. Doing so produces the following output:

GET /routes/details. 

{
  "/stores/**": {
    "id": "stores",
    "fullPath": "/stores/**",
    "location": "http://localhost:8081",
    "path": "/**",
    "prefix": "/stores",
    "retryable": false,
    "customSensitiveHeaders": false,
    "prefixStripped": true
  }
}

A POST to /routes forces a refresh of the existing routes (for example, when there have been changes in the service catalog). You can disable this endpoint by setting endpoints.routes.enabled to false.

[Note]Note

the routes should respond automatically to changes in the service catalog, but the POST to /routes is a way to force the change to happen immediately.

8.6.2 Filters Endpoint

A GET to the filters endpoint at /filters returns a map of Zuul filters by type. For each filter type in the map, you get a list of all the filters of that type, along with their details.

8.7 Strangulation Patterns and Local Forwards

A common pattern when migrating an existing application or API is to “strangle” old endpoints, slowly replacing them with different implementations. The Zuul proxy is a useful tool for this because you can use it to handle all traffic from the clients of the old endpoints but redirect some of the requests to new ones.

The following example shows the configuration details for a “strangle” scenario:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    first:
      path: /first/**
      url: http://first.example.com
    second:
      path: /second/**
      url: forward:/second
    third:
      path: /third/**
      url: forward:/3rd
    legacy:
      path: /**
      url: http://legacy.example.com

In the preceding example, we are strangle the “legacy” application, which is mapped to all requests that do not match one of the other patterns. Paths in /first/** have been extracted into a new service with an external URL. Paths in /second/** are forwarded so that they can be handled locally (for example, with a normal Spring @RequestMapping). Paths in /third/** are also forwarded but with a different prefix (/third/foo is forwarded to /3rd/foo).

[Note]Note

The ignored patterns aren’t completely ignored, they just are not handled by the proxy (so they are also effectively forwarded locally).

8.8 Uploading Files through Zuul

If you use @EnableZuulProxy, you can use the proxy paths to upload files and it should work, so long as the files are small. For large files there is an alternative path that bypasses the Spring DispatcherServlet (to avoid multipart processing) in "/zuul/*". In other words, if you have zuul.routes.customers=/customers/**, then you can POST large files to /zuul/customers/*. The servlet path is externalized via zuul.servletPath. If the proxy route takes you through a Ribbon load balancer, extremely large files also require elevated timeout settings, as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

hystrix.command.default.execution.isolation.thread.timeoutInMilliseconds: 60000
ribbon:
  ConnectTimeout: 3000
  ReadTimeout: 60000

Note that, for streaming to work with large files, you need to use chunked encoding in the request (which some browsers do not do by default), as shown in the following example:

$ curl -v -H "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" \
    -F "[email protected]" localhost:9999/zuul/simple/file

8.9 Query String Encoding

When processing the incoming request, query params are decoded so that they can be available for possible modifications in Zuul filters. They are then re-encoded the backend request is rebuilt in the route filters. The result can be different than the original input if (for example) it was encoded with Javascript’s encodeURIComponent() method. While this causes no issues in most cases, some web servers can be picky with the encoding of complex query string.

To force the original encoding of the query string, it is possible to pass a special flag to ZuulProperties so that the query string is taken as is with the HttpServletRequest::getQueryString method, as shown in the following example:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  forceOriginalQueryStringEncoding: true

[Note]Note

This special flag works only with SimpleHostRoutingFilter. Also, you loose the ability to easily override query parameters with RequestContext.getCurrentContext().setRequestQueryParams(someOverriddenParameters), because the query string is now fetched directly on the original HttpServletRequest.

8.10 Plain Embedded Zuul

If you use @EnableZuulServer (instead of @EnableZuulProxy), you can also run a Zuul server without proxying or selectively switch on parts of the proxying platform. Any beans that you add to the application of type ZuulFilter are installed automatically (as they are with @EnableZuulProxy) but without any of the proxy filters being added automatically.

In that case, the routes into the Zuul server are still specified by configuring "zuul.routes.*", but there is no service discovery and no proxying. Consequently, the "serviceId" and "url" settings are ignored. The following example maps all paths in "/api/**" to the Zuul filter chain:

application.yml. 

 zuul:
  routes:
    api: /api/**

8.11 Disable Zuul Filters

Zuul for Spring Cloud comes with a number of ZuulFilter beans enabled by default in both proxy and server mode. See the Zuul filters package for the list of filters that you can enable. If you want to disable one, set zuul.<SimpleClassName>.<filterType>.disable=true. By convention, the package after filters is the Zuul filter type. For example to disable org.springframework.cloud.netflix.zuul.filters.post.SendResponseFilter, set zuul.SendResponseFilter.post.disable=true.

8.12 Providing Hystrix Fallbacks For Routes

When a circuit for a given route in Zuul is tripped, you can provide a fallback response by creating a bean of type FallbackProvider. Within this bean, you need to specify the route ID the fallback is for and provide a ClientHttpResponse to return as a fallback. The following example shows a relatively simple FallbackProvider implementation:

class MyFallbackProvider implements FallbackProvider {

    @Override
    public String getRoute() {
        return "customers";
    }

    @Override
    public ClientHttpResponse fallbackResponse(String route, final Throwable cause) {
        if (cause instanceof HystrixTimeoutException) {
            return response(HttpStatus.GATEWAY_TIMEOUT);
        } else {
            return response(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
        }
    }

    private ClientHttpResponse response(final HttpStatus status) {
        return new ClientHttpResponse() {
            @Override
            public HttpStatus getStatusCode() throws IOException {
                return status;
            }

            @Override
            public int getRawStatusCode() throws IOException {
                return status.value();
            }

            @Override
            public String getStatusText() throws IOException {
                return status.getReasonPhrase();
            }

            @Override
            public void close() {
            }

            @Override
            public InputStream getBody() throws IOException {
                return new ByteArrayInputStream("fallback".getBytes());
            }

            @Override
            public HttpHeaders getHeaders() {
                HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
                headers.setContentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON);
                return headers;
            }
        };
    }
}

The following example shows how the route configuration for the previous example might appear:

zuul:
  routes:
    customers: /customers/**

If you would like to provide a default fallback for all routes, you can create a bean of type FallbackProvider and have the getRoute method return * or null, as shown in the following example:

class MyFallbackProvider implements FallbackProvider {
    @Override
    public String getRoute() {
        return "*";
    }

    @Override
    public ClientHttpResponse fallbackResponse(String route, Throwable throwable) {
        return new ClientHttpResponse() {
            @Override
            public HttpStatus getStatusCode() throws IOException {
                return HttpStatus.OK;
            }

            @Override
            public int getRawStatusCode() throws IOException {
                return 200;
            }

            @Override
            public String getStatusText() throws IOException {
                return "OK";
            }

            @Override
            public void close() {

            }

            @Override
            public InputStream getBody() throws IOException {
                return new ByteArrayInputStream("fallback".getBytes());
            }

            @Override
            public HttpHeaders getHeaders() {
                HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
                headers.setContentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON);
                return headers;
            }
        };
    }
}

8.13 Zuul Timeouts

If you want to configure the socket timeouts and read timeouts for requests proxied through Zuul, you have two options, based on your configuration:

  • If Zuul uses service discovery, you need to configure these timeouts with the ribbon.ReadTimeout and ribbon.SocketTimeout Ribbon properties.

If you have configured Zuul routes by specifying URLs, you need to use zuul.host.connect-timeout-millis and zuul.host.socket-timeout-millis.

8.14 Rewriting the Location header

If Zuul is fronting a web application, you may need to re-write the Location header when the web application redirects through a HTTP status code of 3XX. Otherwise, the browser redirects to the web application’s URL instead of the Zuul URL. You can configure a LocationRewriteFilter Zuul filter to re-write the Location header to the Zuul’s URL. It also adds back the stripped global and route-specific prefixes. The following example adds a filter by using a Spring Configuration file:

import org.springframework.cloud.netflix.zuul.filters.post.LocationRewriteFilter;
...

@Configuration
@EnableZuulProxy
public class ZuulConfig {
    @Bean
    public LocationRewriteFilter locationRewriteFilter() {
        return new LocationRewriteFilter();
    }
}
[Caution]Caution

Use this filter carefully. The filter acts on the Location header of ALL 3XX response codes, which may not be appropriate in all scenarios, such as when redirecting the user to an external URL.

8.15 Zuul Developer Guide

For a general overview of how Zuul works, see the Zuul Wiki.

8.15.1 The Zuul Servlet

Zuul is implemented as a Servlet. For the general cases, Zuul is embedded into the Spring Dispatch mechanism. This lets Spring MVC be in control of the routing. In this case, Zuul buffers requests. If there is a need to go through Zuul without buffering requests (for example, for large file uploads), the Servlet is also installed outside of the Spring Dispatcher. By default, the servlet has an address of /zuul. This path can be changed with the zuul.servlet-path property.

8.15.2 Zuul RequestContext

To pass information between filters, Zuul uses a RequestContext. Its data is held in a ThreadLocal specific to each request. Information about where to route requests, errors, and the actual HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse are stored there. The RequestContext extends ConcurrentHashMap, so anything can be stored in the context. FilterConstants contains the keys used by the filters installed by Spring Cloud Netflix (more on these later).

8.15.3 @EnableZuulProxy vs. @EnableZuulServer

Spring Cloud Netflix installs a number of filters, depending on which annotation was used to enable Zuul. @EnableZuulProxy is a superset of @EnableZuulServer. In other words, @EnableZuulProxy contains all the filters installed by @EnableZuulServer. The additional filters in the “proxy” enable routing functionality. If you want a “blank” Zuul, you should use @EnableZuulServer.

8.15.4 @EnableZuulServer Filters

@EnableZuulServer creates a SimpleRouteLocator that loads route definitions from Spring Boot configuration files.

The following filters are installed (as normal Spring Beans):

  • Pre filters:

    • ServletDetectionFilter: Detects whether the request is through the Spring Dispatcher. Sets a boolean with a key of FilterConstants.IS_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_REQUEST_KEY.
    • FormBodyWrapperFilter: Parses form data and re-encodes it for downstream requests.
    • DebugFilter: If the debug request parameter is set, sets RequestContext.setDebugRouting() and RequestContext.setDebugRequest() to true. *Route filters:
    • SendForwardFilter: Forwards requests by using the Servlet RequestDispatcher. The forwarding location is stored in the RequestContext attribute, FilterConstants.FORWARD_TO_KEY. This is useful for forwarding to endpoints in the current application.
  • Post filters:

    • SendResponseFilter: Writes responses from proxied requests to the current response.
  • Error filters:

    • SendErrorFilter: Forwards to /error (by default) if RequestContext.getThrowable() is not null. You can change the default forwarding path (/error) by setting the error.path property.

8.15.5 @EnableZuulProxy Filters

Creates a DiscoveryClientRouteLocator that loads route definitions from a DiscoveryClient (such as Eureka) as well as from properties. A route is created for each serviceId from the DiscoveryClient. As new services are added, the routes are refreshed.

In addition to the filters described earlier, the following filters are installed (as normal Spring Beans):

  • Pre filters:

    • PreDecorationFilter: Determines where and how to route, depending on the supplied RouteLocator. It also sets various proxy-related headers for downstream requests.
  • Route filters:

    • RibbonRoutingFilter: Uses Ribbon, Hystrix, and pluggable HTTP clients to send requests. Service IDs are found in the RequestContext attribute, FilterConstants.SERVICE_ID_KEY. This filter can use different HTTP clients:

      • Apache HttpClient: The default client.
      • Squareup OkHttpClient v3: Enabled by having the com.squareup.okhttp3:okhttp library on the classpath and setting ribbon.okhttp.enabled=true.
      • Netflix Ribbon HTTP client: Enabled by setting ribbon.restclient.enabled=true. This client has limitations, including that it does not support the PATCH method, but it also has built-in retry.
    • SimpleHostRoutingFilter: Sends requests to predetermined URLs through an Apache HttpClient. URLs are found in RequestContext.getRouteHost().

8.15.6 Custom Zuul Filter Examples

Most of the following "How to Write" examples below are included Sample Zuul Filters project. There are also examples of manipulating the request or response body in that repository.

This section includes the following examples:

How to Write a Pre Filter

Pre filters set up data in the RequestContext for use in filters downstream. The main use case is to set information required for route filters. The following example shows a Zuul pre filter:

public class QueryParamPreFilter extends ZuulFilter {
	@Override
	public int filterOrder() {
		return PRE_DECORATION_FILTER_ORDER - 1; // run before PreDecoration
	}

	@Override
	public String filterType() {
		return PRE_TYPE;
	}

	@Override
	public boolean shouldFilter() {
		RequestContext ctx = RequestContext.getCurrentContext();
		return !ctx.containsKey(FORWARD_TO_KEY) // a filter has already forwarded
				&& !ctx.containsKey(SERVICE_ID_KEY); // a filter has already determined serviceId
	}
    @Override
    public Object run() {
        RequestContext ctx = RequestContext.getCurrentContext();
		HttpServletRequest request = ctx.getRequest();
		if (request.getParameter("sample") != null) {
		    // put the serviceId in `RequestContext`
    		ctx.put(SERVICE_ID_KEY, request.getParameter("foo"));
    	}
        return null;
    }
}

The preceding filter populates SERVICE_ID_KEY from the sample request parameter. In practice, you should not do that kind of direct mapping. Instead, the service ID should be looked up from the value of sample instead.

Now that SERVICE_ID_KEY is populated, PreDecorationFilter does not run and RibbonRoutingFilter runs.

[Tip]Tip

If you want to route to a full URL, call ctx.setRouteHost(url) instead.

To modify the path to which routing filters forward, set the REQUEST_URI_KEY.

How to Write a Route Filter

Route filters run after pre filters and make requests to other services. Much of the work here is to translate request and response data to and from the model required by the client. The following example shows a Zuul route filter:

public class OkHttpRoutingFilter extends ZuulFilter {
	@Autowired
	private ProxyRequestHelper helper;

	@Override
	public String filterType() {
		return ROUTE_TYPE;
	}

	@Override
	public int filterOrder() {
		return SIMPLE_HOST_ROUTING_FILTER_ORDER - 1;
	}

	@Override
	public boolean shouldFilter() {
		return RequestContext.getCurrentContext().getRouteHost() != null
				&& RequestContext.getCurrentContext().sendZuulResponse();
	}

    @Override
    public Object run() {
		OkHttpClient httpClient = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
				// customize
				.build();

		RequestContext context = RequestContext.getCurrentContext();
		HttpServletRequest request = context.getRequest();

		String method = request.getMethod();

		String uri = this.helper.buildZuulRequestURI(request);

		Headers.Builder headers = new Headers.Builder();
		Enumeration<String> headerNames = request.getHeaderNames();
		while (headerNames.hasMoreElements()) {
			String name = headerNames.nextElement();
			Enumeration<String> values = request.getHeaders(name);

			while (values.hasMoreElements()) {
				String value = values.nextElement();
				headers.add(name, value);
			}
		}

		InputStream inputStream = request.getInputStream();

		RequestBody requestBody = null;
		if (inputStream != null && HttpMethod.permitsRequestBody(method)) {
			MediaType mediaType = null;
			if (headers.get("Content-Type") != null) {
				mediaType = MediaType.parse(headers.get("Content-Type"));
			}
			requestBody = RequestBody.create(mediaType, StreamUtils.copyToByteArray(inputStream));
		}

		Request.Builder builder = new Request.Builder()
				.headers(headers.build())
				.url(uri)
				.method(method, requestBody);

		Response response = httpClient.newCall(builder.build()).execute();

		LinkedMultiValueMap<String, String> responseHeaders = new LinkedMultiValueMap<>();

		for (Map.Entry<String, List<String>> entry : response.headers().toMultimap().entrySet()) {
			responseHeaders.put(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
		}

		this.helper.setResponse(response.code(), response.body().byteStream(),
				responseHeaders);
		context.setRouteHost(null); // prevent SimpleHostRoutingFilter from running
		return null;
    }
}

The preceding filter translates Servlet request information into OkHttp3 request information, executes an HTTP request, and translates OkHttp3 response information to the Servlet response.

How to Write a Post Filter

Post filters typically manipulate the response. The following filter adds a random UUID as the X-Sample header:

public class AddResponseHeaderFilter extends ZuulFilter {
	@Override
	public String filterType() {
		return POST_TYPE;
	}

	@Override
	public int filterOrder() {
		return SEND_RESPONSE_FILTER_ORDER - 1;
	}

	@Override
	public boolean shouldFilter() {
		return true;
	}

	@Override
	public Object run() {
		RequestContext context = RequestContext.getCurrentContext();
    	HttpServletResponse servletResponse = context.getResponse();
		servletResponse.addHeader("X-Sample", UUID.randomUUID().toString());
		return null;
	}
}
[Note]Note

Other manipulations, such as transforming the response body, are much more complex and computationally intensive.

8.15.7 How Zuul Errors Work

If an exception is thrown during any portion of the Zuul filter lifecycle, the error filters are executed. The SendErrorFilter is only run if RequestContext.getThrowable() is not null. It then sets specific javax.servlet.error.* attributes in the request and forwards the request to the Spring Boot error page.

8.15.8 Zuul Eager Application Context Loading

Zuul internally uses Ribbon for calling the remote URLs. By default, Ribbon clients are lazily loaded by Spring Cloud on first call. This behavior can be changed for Zuul by using the following configuration, which results eager loading of the child Ribbon related Application contexts at application startup time. The following example shows how to enable eager loading:

application.yml. 

zuul:
  ribbon:
    eager-load:
      enabled: true